Change contrast:

## Supporting Research

• Type: Field study involving students in 9th grade, identified as underprepared for algebra and enrolled in a supplemental class using the TTA curriculum.

Data Sources:  TTA pre-test and final exam, end-of-year survey with Likert-like items that probed students’ opinions about the TTA activities and the class as a whole

Findings: On average, students increased test scores from 17.7 to 55.1 total points, which is statistically significant and equivalent to an effect size of 1.9.  Average gains were also statistically significant within every content area.  More than 50% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that overall, the TTA class improved their understanding of algebra, including rates of change and solving equations, and strengthened their problem-solving skills by helping them learn how to approach unfamiliar problems and find different ways to solve mathematics problems.

Structure: Year long course, consisting of 12 units, including teacher guide, student workbook, and answer keys

Learning Activities: Think-alouds, puzzles, exploration, practice problems, and using algebraic habits of mind (aligned to the Common Core Standards of Mathematical Practice) to build mathematical meaning using pictures and diagrams and transition to abstract representations of those concepts using symbols, expressions and equations

Learning Outcomes:

Students use algebraic habits of mind to build mathematical understanding of Algebra 1 topics

Habits of Mind:

Puzzling and Persevering, Seeking and Using Structure, Using Tools Strategically, Describing Repeated Reasoning, Communicating with Precision

Units of Study:

Language of Algebra; Geography of the Number Line; Micro-Geometry of the Number Line; Area and Multiplication; Logic of Algebra; Geography of the Coordinate Plane; Thinking Things Through Thoroughly; Logic of Fractions, Points, Slopes and Lines; Area Model Factoring; Exponents; and Algebraic Habits of Mind

Authors/Contributors:

June Mark, E. Paul Goldenberg, Mary Fries, Jane M. Kang, Tracy Cordner, and Published by Heinemann